PSA – Prostata specifičan antigen je protein male molekulske mase i u krvi se njegove povišene vrednosti javljaju nakon oštećenja tkiva prostate. PSA je visoko osetljiv tumorski marker za karcinom prostate. Važno je reći da povišene vrednosti PSA ne znače sigurno rak prostate. (1)Service Urologie, Hôpital Bichat, Paris. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) were assayed using a radioimmunologic method in patients from November through April Cited by: 2. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein made by prostate cells that helps keep semen liquified so sperm can swim. Both noncancerous and cancerous prostate cells make PSA, but cancerous cells tend to produce more, and some excrete into the bloodstream. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is one way to screen for prostate cancer. This blood test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a protein made only by the prostate and prostate cancers.
The test can be done in a lab, hospital or healthcare provider’s office.
Psa urologie prostate
After prostate cancer surgery, you may experience one or more type of Incontinence. They have their own set of side effects. A change in your sense of taste and touch is also possible. B – Stratégie thérapeutique Le choix thérapeutique dépend du stade, de la différenciation, des troubles mictionnels éventuels, des facteurs de comorbidités, des signes cliniques présents au diagnostic et de l’espérance de vie du patient. Eight out of ten Psa urologie prostate cancers” found are small, with tumors that are not harmful. Not everyone has the same side effects for the same amount of time. La radiothérapie consiste en l’irradiation guidée par l’image de la loge prostatique par une dose de 76—78 Gy. Some newer 3DCTR machines have imaging scanners built into them.
Polno prenostive bolesti i zahvati urinarni kateter, endoskopski zahvatiolakšavaju unos infekcije. With any radiation treatment, the Psa urologie prostate effects should be discussed with you before you begin. Cette technique, encore en investigation, permettrait une détection plus aisée des récidives ou des localisations Psa urologie prostate. Obrezivanje tj. You generally do not need to stay in the hospital for chemotherapy. World Area Prostate cancer numbers and deaths vary around the world but are higher in North America and Northern Europe.
PSA je prostatický špecifický antigén a je to bielkovina, ktorá sa tvorí len v prostatických žľaziach, ide teda o orgánovo špecifický ukazovateľ /marker/. Úlohou PSA je skvapalnenie ejakulátu, preto je aj v ejakuláte jeho najvyššia koncentrácia. Jeho malá časť sa vylučuje do krvného riečišťa. Biopsija prostate nije obavezna dijagnostička procedura za potvrdu upale prostate, ali se neretko, pri izvođenju biopsije, pod sumnjom na kancer, zbog povišenog PSA, umesto kancera, zapravo potvrdi upala prostate.
Lečenje hroničnog prostatitisa. Hodnota PSA je také závislá na věku a velikosti prostaty, proto pro každého individuálního muže existuje mírně odlišná „normální“ hladina PSA. U pacientů mezi lety je hladina PSA 4,0 ng/ml ještě „normální“, u pacientů o dvacet let mladších je to již jasná indikace pro další vyšetřování.
Urologija – Prostata specifični antigen (PSA) i karcinom prostate
It is also used for a short time Psaa and after radiation therapy. La prise en Pa se fait de manière pluridisciplinaire et les décisions sont souvent prises en réunion de concertation pluridisciplinaire RCPnotamment avec l’aide active des équipes de soins palliatifs, du médecin référent et des médecins algologues. These glands are attached to each side of the prostate. Abnormal results with either test may be due to benign prostatic enlargement BPH or infection, rather than cancer. This may cause diarrhea Psa urologie prostate bladder infections. Čak i pri korišćenju druge dve metode lečenja, zračenje i hormonska terapija, smanjena vrednost PSA je obično dobar znak da je lečenje uspešno.
Njegova produkcija je stimulisana androgenim hormonima testosteron. In experienced hands, RALP and retropubic prostatectomy see below have similar outcomes. The exception to prostste Psa urologie prostate if hormones are also given as part of treatment, usually given Psa urologie prostate with radiation therapy.
Not everyone has the same side effects for the same amount of time. With surgery and with radiation therapy , there are two main side effects to consider: erectile dysfunction ED and urinary incontinence a loss of urine control. For some men, surgery can relieve pre-existing urinary obstruction. Most men with these side effects find ways to manage them over time. All men have some form of erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery. Erectile dysfunction is the inability of a man to have an erection long enough for satisfying sexual activity. Nerves involved in the erection process surround the prostate gland, and they can be affected by surgery. They can also be affected by radiation treatment. These nerve bundles help control blood flow to the penis.
The length of time ED lasts after treatment depends on many things, including how firm your erections are before treatment. Sometimes, it may take one year or longer to recover erectile function. In the meantime, your doctor may have ED treatment options for you. If it’s possible, nerve-sparing surgery may help prevent long-term damage. Older men have a higher chance of permanent ED after this surgery. For more information on how prostate cancer surgery can affect your erections, read our After Treatment: Erectile Dysfunction Issues After Prostate Cancer Treatment section. It may surprise you to know that men are still able to have an orgasm climax , even after a radical prostatectomy.
An erection is not needed to climax. There will be very little, if any, fluid with an orgasm. In addition, you can no longer cause a pregnancy after surgery. This is because the prostate, seminal vesicles, and connections to the testicle were removed and the vas deferens was divided during surgery. Planning for fertility preservation in advance of surgery is an option for men who want to have children. Read our Fertility Preservation fact sheet to learn more on this. It is important to know that sexual desire is not lost with this surgery or radiation treatment.
The exception to this is if hormones are also given as part of treatment, usually given temporarily with radiation therapy.
Incontinence is the inability to control your urine. After prostate cancer surgery, you may experience one or more type of Incontinence. Stress Incontinence – is urine leakage when coughing, laughing, sneezing or exercising. It is the most common type of urine control problem after radical prostatectomy.
Overactive Bladder Urge Incontinence – is the sudden need to go to the bathroom even when the bladder is not full because the bladder is overly sensitive. This type of incontinence is the most common form after radiation treatment. Mixed Incontinence – is a combination of stress and urge incontinence with symptoms from both types. Because incontinence may affect your physical and emotional recovery, it is important to understand your treatment options.
For more information on how prostate cancer surgery can affect incontinence, read our After Treatment: Incontinence Issues After Prostate Cancer Treatment article. Updated January Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. Radiation can be used as the primary treatment for prostate cancer in place of surgery.
It can also be used after surgery if the cancer is not fully removed or if it returns. Radiation therapy mostly involves photon beams or proton beams. Photon beams make up traditional x-rays. They carry a very low radiation charge and mass, and can scatter to nearby health tissue.
On the other hand, proton beams have more charge and heavy mass and can target deep tissue. A physician can direct proton radiation treatment to the specific site of cancer, minimizing damage to nearby healthy tissue. Before you begin, it helps to ask your doctor s why they recommend one type of radiation therapy over another. Photon-based external-beam x-rays may damage nearby healthy tissue.
That damage can cause side effects. Some newer 3DCTR machines have imaging scanners built into them. It allows higher doses of radiation to be delivered to cancer cells while protecting surrounding healthy tissue. It uses a machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron to speed up and control the protons. High-energy protons can travel deeper into body tissue than low-energy photons.
With proton therapy, radiation does not go beyond the tumor, so nearby tissue is not affected. There are fewer side effects. Intensity-modulated proton beam therapy IMPT is a new way to deliver targeted PBT, but these machines are expensive and are not offered everywhere. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy SBRT delivers large doses of radiation to exact areas, such as the prostate, with advanced imaging.
The entire course of treatment is given over a shorter period, for just a few days. With any radiation treatment, the side effects should be discussed with you before you begin. With brachytherapy, radioactive material is placed directly into the prostate using a hollow needle. LDR brachytherapy is when your doctor uses a thin needle to insert radioactive „seeds” the size of a rice grain into the prostate. These seeds send out radiation, killing the prostate cancer cells nearby. In LDR, the seeds are left in the prostate even after treatment is finished.
HDR brachytherapy is when your doctor puts radiation into your prostate using a slightly larger hollow needle to insert a thin catheter. This catheter stays in your body until treatment is done. The radiation source stays in your prostate for a short period of time. Once your treatment is done, all radioactive material is removed. You may need to stay in the hospital overnight. Sometimes radiation therapy is combined with hormone therapy to shrink the prostate before starting.
Or, hormone therapy may be combined with external beam therapy to treat high-risk cancers. The benefit of radiation therapy is that it is less invasive than surgery. Whether the radiation is given externally or internally, this treatment is effective for early stage prostate cancer. Some need both types of radiation combined to treat their cancer.
The main side effects of radiotherapy are incontinence and bowel problems. Urinary problems usually improve over time, but in some men they never go away. Erectile dysfunction, including impotence, is also possible. Many men feel tired for a few weeks to months after treatment.
If hormone therapy is used with radiation, sexual side effects are common. These can include loss of sex drive, hot flashes, weight gain, fatigue, decreased bone density and depression. Fortunately, these side effects can be managed and usually go away when hormone therapy is stopped. It helps to work with your radiologist before you begin treatment to prepare for any known side effects in advance. Follow-up visits with your healthcare team will help you address any new problems. Download our fact sheet on Radiation for Prostate Cancer [pdf] to learn more. Cryotherapy , or cryoblation, for prostate cancer is the controlled freezing of the prostate gland.
The freezing destroys cancer cells.
Cryotherapy is done under anesthesia. This treatment is for men who are not good candidates for surgery or radiotherapy because of other health issues. For this procedure, the prostate is imaged and measured. Special needles called „cryoprobes” are placed in the prostate under the skin. The needles are guided by ultrasound, to direct the freezing process. A catheter will be used in the hospital until you can urinate on your own.
After cryotherapy, a patient is monitored with regular PSA tests and in some cases a biopsy.
Cryotherapy has been found to have some side effects. You may experience incontinence and other urinary or bowel problems at first. Erectile dysfunction is likely. Worth noting is the risk of a fistula. A fistula is a channel that forms after surgery between the urethra and the rectum. This may cause diarrhea or bladder infections. It can be used for the whole gland.
This uses a needle-thin probe to circle the tumor with a special solution that kills the tumor by freezing it. This uses a „NanoKnife” to pass an electrical current through the tumor. The electricity creates very tiny openings called pores in the tumor’s cells, leading to cell death.
For men with small, localized prostate tumors , focal therapy may be an option. Focal therapy is a general term for a few methods. They kill small tumors inside the prostate, without destroying the whole gland or healthy tissue nearby. There are a few types of focal therapy in clinical trials. Ideally, focal therapy would lead to fewer side effects including changes in urinary function. The long-term benefits of focal therapy are not yet known. Research is being done to study this further. Right now, the FDA has approved this method to destroy prostate tissue, but not clearly to treat prostate cancer. Because many of these treatments are so new, insurance coverage is not often available.
Prostate cancer cells use the hormone testosterone to grow, similar to our need for food.
Hormonal therapy is also known as androgen deprivation therapy ADT. It uses drugs to block or lower testosterone and other male sex hormones that fuel cancer. ADT essentially starves prostate cancer cells of testosterone. ADT is used to slow cancer growth in cancers that are advanced or have come back after initial local aggressive therapy. It is also used for a short time during and after radiation therapy. Surgery: Removes the testicles and glands that produce testosterone with a procedure called an orchiectomy. Medication: There are a variety of medications used for ADT.
There are two types that are used at first. One is the injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone LH-RHs inhibitors.
These are also called either agonists or antagonists. They suppress the body’s natural ability to turn on testosterone production. A second type which is often given with the first type are called non-steroidal anti-androgens. These pills block testosterone from working. These therapies have been used for many years and are often offered as the first option for men who can’t have or don’t want other treatments. Hormone therapy usually works for a while maybe for years until the cancer „learns” how to bypass this treatment.
There are new medications available in recent years that may be used after other hormone therapy fails. This condition is called „castration-resistant prostate cancer” CRPC. For more information on this, review our Advanced Prostate Cancer website article.
To block the production of androgens in CRPC patients, there are a few options. The drug Abiraterone Zytiga , given with prednisone, is one option that blocks an enzyme called CYP17, to stop these cells from making androgens.
Another option is a drug, enzalutamide Xtandi ® that blocks the testosterone from working in a different way. This medication blocks signals in cells that tell it to grow and divide. Like other hormone therapies, these options also only work for a while. When they stop working, chemotherapy may be an option. Hormone therapy has been linked to heart disease, diabetes and the loss of bone. You should discuss these risks with your doctor before you begin this treatment for prostate cancer.
Hot flashes and fatigue are also short-term side effects of hormone treatment. The same is true for the loss of sexual drive. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells anywhere in the body.
It is used for advanced stages of prostate cancer. It is also used when cancer has metastasized spread into other organs or tissue. The drugs circulate in the bloodstream. Because they kill any rapidly growing cell, they attack both cancerous cells and non-cancerous ones. Dose and frequency are carefully controlled to reduce the side effects this may cause. Often, chemotherapy is used with other treatments. It is not the main treatment for prostate cancer patients. Many chemotherapy drugs are given intravenously with a needle in a vein.
Others are taken by mouth. They are given in the healthcare provider’s office or at home. You generally do not need to stay in the hospital for chemotherapy. They are often given once per month for several months. Over the last 10 years, chemotherapy has helped many patients with CRPC. Recently, chemotherapy has also been found to help patients with advanced prostate cancer when given at the same time as standard hormone therapy. Yet, chemotherapy may only works for a while. The side effects from chemotherapy should be considered.
Side effects depend on the drug, the dose and how long the treatment lasts. The most common side effects are fatigue feeling very tired , nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and hair loss. A change in your sense of taste and touch is also possible.
There is an increased risk of infections and anemia because of lower blood cell counts. Most of these side effects can be managed, and lessen once treatment ends. Immunotherapy stimulates your body’s immune system to find and attack cancer cells. There are several approaches used in immunotherapy. Most of these are now in clinical trials and have not yet been approved for routine use. Provenge® is one type of immunotherapy that is already FDA approved. It has been shown to help slow cancer growth in men with advanced prostate cancer.
For this treatment, the medical team must remove immature immune cells from the man with advanced prostate cancer. Then the cells are re-engineered to recognize and attack prostate cancer cells, and put back into the body. While cancer doctors are excited about the potential of immune therapies, clinical trials have not yet shown clear successful results.
So far, most immunotherapy approaches have only mild to moderate side effects. Clinical trials are research studies involving real patients to test if a new treatment or procedure is safe, effective and maybe better than established options. The goal is to learn which treatments work best for certain illnesses or groups of people. Clinical trials follow strict scientific standards.
These standards help protect patients and produce more reliable study results. Are you interested in participating in a clinical trial for prostate cancer? Ask your doctor if you qualify for a specific prostate cancer trial. Learn as much as you can about the benefits and risks of the study. To search for information on current clinical trials for the treatment of bladder cancer visit the Clinical Trials Resource Center —you may also visit the National Institutes of Health website.
Each year, more men are surviving prostate cancer and winning back their lives. Prostate cancer can be a manageable disease if caught early and treated appropriately. Once you have finished treatment, it is time to manage your side effects.
It is time to create a long-term schedule with your doctor for future tests. It’s also time to go on with your life. Talk to your healthcare provider about the side effects or problems you have after treatment. You and your healthcare provider can decide your best next steps. If you haven’t yet started treatment, consider the expertise of your doctor before you begin. With more experienced surgeons, the risk of permanent side effects, like incontinence, is lower. After treatment, you may feel very emotional. You may also worry about cancer returning.
Many men still feel anxious and unsure, or upset about treatment side effects. Whatever you’re feeling, it’s important to tell your healthcare provider about it. Fizikalnim pregledom, prostata je manje ili više bolno osetljiva, ali po pravilu, ograničena.
Laboratorijskim pregledom sedimenta urina se vidi povišen broj belih i crvenih krvnih zrnaca i bakterija. Urinokulturom i kulturom sekreta prostate se dokazuje prisustvo patogenih bakterija. Ultrazvučnim pregledom se utvrđuje postojanje rezidualnog urina, kamena u bešici, patološki izmenjen zid bešike, veličina i stuktura prostate, te prisustvo gnojnih procesa u prostati.
Biopsija prostate nije obavezna dijagnostička procedura za potvrdu upale prostate, ali se neretko, pri izvođenju biopsije, pod sumnjom na kancer, zbog povišenog PSA, umesto kancera, zapravo potvrdi upala prostate.
Lečenje se sastoji u tretmanu ulaznih vrata infekcije, brobi protiv prouzrokovača infekcije i podizanju imuniteta. U prvoj fazi, se daju antibiotici koji imaju afinitet za tkivo prostate, po mogućstvu po antibiogramu u trajanju od nekoliko nedelja, uz zaštitu crevne flore probiotic, Bulardi.
U ovoj fazi bolesti se daju medikamenti za smirivanje upale serapeptaza, antireumatici. Lečenje bilnjnim preparatima i imunostimulansima se može nastaviti mesecima i godinama u cilju prevencije recidiva bolesti. Prevencia Anatómia Erekcia Dotazníky. Príznaky Vyšetrenia Liečba Guidelines. Prevencia Príznaky Liečba Vyšetrenia Guidelines.
Videa Fotogaléria Napísali o nás. PSA a iné krvné vyšetrenia.
Elevated PSA| The Urology Group
In response to the COVID health issue, we are offering telehealth as well as in-person appointments. Prostaffect сumpără to learn more. Prostate-specific antigens PSAs are proteins made by both cancerous and non-cancerous prostate cells. Cancerous cells usually produce more, so elevated PSA levels in a blood test can indicate prostate cancer. Prostate specific antigen PSA is a Psa urologie prostate made by prostate cells that helps keep semen liquified so sperm can Psa urologie prostate. Both noncancerous and cancerous prostate cells make PSA, but cancerous cells tend to produce more, and some excrete into the bloodstream.
However, combined with prsotate digital rectal exam, a Urologis screening remains the best way to detect prostate cancer. After prostate Psa urologie prostate is detected, PSA testing also can help determine the best treatments and prognosis.
Elevated PSA in men may signal problems with the prostate gland.
Jedna od osnovnih fizioloških funkcija prostate je sekretorna. Možda najvažniji protein sekreta prostate je prostata specifični antigen PSAčija je osnovna uloga da omogućava uslove za preživljavanje spermatozoida. Karcinom prostate predstavlja medicinski izazov, budući da je jedan od najčešće dijagnostikovanih tumora i čest uzrok smrti od karcinoma kod muškaraca u Psa urologie prostate. Uvođenje i široka klinička primena merenja PSA sredinom osamdesetih godina prošlog veka predstavljalo je veliku inovaciju u dijagnostikovanju, lečenju i praćenju pacijenata sa prostatičnim karcinomom. Do kraja prve decenije XXI veka se PSA primenjivao u skrining programima za ranu detekciju CaP, što je napušteno, tako da se savetuje da muškarci koji razmatraju skrining za PSA porodično opterećenjenajpre razgovaraju o rizicima i koristima sa svojim lekarima.
Danas Psa urologie prostate preporučeno da se radi godišnji PSA test kod svih muškaraca preko PSA prostata specifični antigen je enzim serin-proteaza iz grupe glikoproteina, koju produkuje prostata, a njegova uloga je likvefakcija sperme. Njegova produkcija je Psa urologie prostate androgenim hormonima testosteron. Psa urologie prostate, PSA je protein proizveden od normalnih, ali i malignih ćelija prostate.